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EMF Study
(Database last updated on Mar 27, 2024)

ID Number 2787
Study Type Literature Review, Letter, Book Chapt., Report
Model Review articles on mmwaves and 5G.

AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT: Russell 2019 (IEEE #7070): The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects. It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives. Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated. This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies. AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT: Olsen 2020 (IEEE #7512): Recently, there has been quite a bit of discussion about the safety of newer 5G wireless communication systems [1]. It is not uncommon to find articles that compare RF safety standards developed by different organizations and accept the validity of each without comment [2] or dismiss the validity of a given standard by claiming a conflict of interest [3]. Given this, it is reasonable to ask about the legitimacy of the standards setting process. In regulating human RF exposure, most countries in the world refer to standards generated by either the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (IEEE/ICES) and its Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR) [NOTE ADDED: IEEE/ICES develops EMF/RF exposure standards; however, ICOMAR does not develop EMF/RF exposure standards.] or the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP). Hence, it is reasonable to discuss the processes by which these bodies arrive at their standards or guidelines for human exposure to RF electromagnetic fields. That is the purpose of this document. Prior to equating the validity of any alternative standard to those of COMAR or ICNIRP, a similar analysis of the alternative should be done. One example of such an analysis is presented in [4].

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  • Russell, CL Environmental Research., (2018) 165:484-495
  • Olsen, RG IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine., (2020) 9:27-29
  • Hoolihan, D IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine., (2020) 9:96-99
  • Pujol, F et al. 5G Observatory Quarterly Report for the European Commission. , (2020) 8:1-132
  • Elzanaty, A et al. Frontiers in Communications and Networks. , (2021)
  • Chiaraviglio, L et al. IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society., (2021) 2:2131-2179
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